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Prof. Sham Pak Chung 沈伯松

BA (Cantab), BM BCh (Oxon), MRCPsych, MSc (Lond), PhD (Cantab)

Suen Chi-Sun Professor in Clinical Science

Director of Academic Developments, Psychiatry,
Chair Professor of Psychiatric Genomics (from August 2006),
Director, Centre for Genomic Sciences (from April 2012),
Director, State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences (from 2014),
Suen Chi-Sun Professor of Clinical Science (from April 2016),
LKS Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong

The HKU Scholars Hub Page address:

Research Interests:

  • Genetics and epidemiology of psychiatric disorders

  • Statistical methodology for genetic and epidemiological studies

Selected Publication list:

h-index according to Scopus: 95 (18th April 2017); for Sham (surname) and Pak (first name)

  1. Basil, P., Li, Q., Gui, H., Hui, T. C. K., Ling, V. H. M., Wong, C. C. Y., . . . Sham, P.-C. (2018). Prenatal immune activation alters the adult neural epigenome but can be partly stabilised by a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid diet. Translational Psychiatry, 8(1), 125. doi:10.1038/s41398-018-0167-x

  2. Campbell, D. D., Li, Y., & Sham, P. C. (2018). Multifactorial disease risk calculator: Risk prediction for multifactorial disease pedigrees. Genet Epidemiol, 42(2), 130-133. doi:10.1002/gepi.22101

  3. Chau, C. K.-L., Lau, A. L.-C., Sham, P.-C., & So, H.-C. (2019). Uncovering bi-directional causal relationships between plasma proteins and psychiatric disorders: A proteome-wide study leveraging GWAS summary data. bioRxiv, 648113. doi:10.1101/648113

  4. Chiu, P. W., Lui, S. S. Y., Hung, K. S. Y., Chan, R. C. K., Chan, Q., Sham, P. C., . . . Mak, H. K. F. (2018). In vivo gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate levels in people with first-episode schizophrenia: A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Schizophr Res, 193, 295-303. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2017.07.021

  5. Di Forti, M., Quattrone, D., Freeman, T. P., Tripoli, G., Gayer-Anderson, C., Quigley, H.,Sham, P. C., . . . Grp, E.-G. W. (2019). The contribution of cannabis use to variation in the incidence of psychotic disorder across Europe (EU-GEI): a multicentre case-control study. Lancet Psychiatry, 6(5), 427-436. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(19)30048-3

  6. Guan, J., Cai, J. J., Ji, G., & Sham, P. C. (2019). Commonality in dysregulated expression of gene sets in cortical brains of individuals with autism, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Translational Psychiatry, 9(1), 152. doi:10.1038/s41398-019-0488-4

  7. Huang, D., Yi, X., Zhang, S., Zheng, Z., Wang, P., Xuan, C.,Sham, P. C., . . . Li, M. J. (2018). GWAS4D: multidimensional analysis of context-specific regulatory variant for human complex diseases and traits. Nucleic Acids Res, 46(W1), W114-W120. doi:10.1093/nar/gky407

  8. Li, M., Jiang, L., Mak, T. S. H., Kwan, J. S. H., Xue, C., Chen, P., . . . Sham, P. C. (2019). A powerful conditional gene-based association approach implicated functionally important genes for schizophrenia. Bioinformatics, 35(4), 628-635. doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/bty682

  9. Li, Z., Wang, Y., Yan, C., Cheung, E. F. C., Docherty, A. R., Sham, P. C., . . . Chan, R. C. K. (2019). Inheritance of Neural Substrates for Motivation and Pleasure. Psychol Sci, 956797619859340. doi:10.1177/0956797619859340

  10. Lu, X., Peloso, G. M., Liu, D. J., Wu, Y., Zhang, H., Zhou, W.,Sham, P. C., . . . Willer, C. J. (2017). Exome chip meta-analysis identifies novel loci and East Asian–specific coding variants that contribute to lipid levels and coronary artery disease. Nature Genetics, 49, 1722. doi:10.1038/ng.3978

  11. Mak, T. S. H., Lee, Y.-K., Tang, C. S., Hai, J. S. H., Ran, X., Sham, P.-C., & Tse, H.-F. (2018). Coverage and diagnostic yield of Whole Exome Sequencing for the Evaluation of Cases with Dilated and Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 10846. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-29263-3

  12. Shi, D. D., Huang, Y. H., Lai, C. S. W., Dong, C. M., Ho, L. C., Wu, E. X., Sham, P. C., . . . Zhang, Z. J. (2019). Chemotherapy-Induced Cognitive Impairment Is Associated with Cytokine Dysregulation and Disruptions in Neuroplasticity. Mol Neurobiol, 56(3), 2234-2243. doi:10.1007/s12035-018-1224-4

  13. So, H. C., Chau, K. L., Ao, F. K., Mo, C. H., & b (2019). Exploring shared genetic bases and causal relationships of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with 28 cardiovascular and metabolic traits. Psychol Med, 49(8), 1286-1298. doi:10.1017/S0033291718001812

  14. Tang, C. S., Li, P., Lai, F. P., Fu, A. X., Lau, S. T., So, M. T.,Sham, P. C., . . . Ngan, E. S. (2018). Identification of Genes Associated With Hirschsprung Disease, Based on Whole-Genome Sequence Analysis, and Potential Effects on Enteric Nervous System Development. Gastroenterology, 155(6), 1908-1922 e1905. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2018.09.012

  15. Toulopoulou, T., Zhang, X., Cherny, S., Dickinson, D., Berman, K. F., Straub, R. E.,Sham, P. C., . . . Weinberger, D. R. (2019). Polygenic risk score increases schizophrenia liability through cognition-relevant pathways. Brain, 142(2), 471-485. doi:10.1093/brain/awy279

  16. Wang, Q., Man Wu, H., Yue, W., Yan, H., Zhang, Y., Tan, L.,Sham, P. C., . . . Chinese Antipsychotics Pharmacogenomics, C. (2018). Effect of Damaging Rare Mutations in Synapse-Related Gene Sets on Response to Short-term Antipsychotic Medication in Chinese Patients With Schizophrenia: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Psychiatry, 75(12), 1261-1269.

  17. Yeung, R. K., Xiang, Z.-H., Tsang, S.-Y., Li, R., Ho, T. Y. C., Li, Q.,Sham, P. C., . . . Xue, H. (2018). Gabrb2-knockout mice displayed schizophrenia-like and comorbid phenotypes with interneuron–astrocyte–microglia dysregulation. Translational Psychiatry, 8(1), 128. doi:10.1038/s41398-018-0176-9

  18. Yin, L., Cheung, E. F., Chen, R. Y., Wong, E. H., Sham, P. C., & So, H. C. (2018). Leveraging genome-wide association and clinical data in revealing schizophrenia subgroups. J Psychiatr Res, 106, 106-117. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2018.09.010

  19. Ying, D., Li, M. J., Sham, P. C., & Li, M. (2018). A powerful approach reveals numerous expression quantitative trait haplotypes in multiple tissues. Bioinformatics, 34(18), 3145-3150. doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/bty318

  20. Yip, S. H., Sham, P. C., & Wang, J. (2018). Evaluation of tools for highly variable gene discovery from single-cell RNA-seq data. Brief Bioinform. doi:10.1093/bib/bby011

  21. Zhang, Y., Li, M., Wang, Q., Hsu, J. S., Deng, W., Ma, X.,Sham, P. C., . . . Li, T. (2019). A joint study of whole exome sequencing and structural MRI analysis in major depressive disorder. Psychol Med, 1-12. doi:10.1017/S0033291719000072

  22. So, HC, Sham PC (2017) Exploring the predictive power of polygenic scores derived from genome-wide association studies: a study of 10 complex traits. Bioinformatics 33, 886-890

  23. Yang Z, Li M, Hu X, Xiang B, Deng W, Wang Q, Wang Y, Zhao L, Ma X, Sham PC, Northoff G, Li T (2017)  Rare damging variants in DNA repair and cell cycle pathways are associated with hippocampal and cognitive dysfunction: a combined genetic imaging study in first-episode treatment-naïve patients with schizophrenia. Translational Psychiatry 7, e1028

  24. So HC, Sham PC (2016) Improving polygenic risk prediction from summary statistics by an empirical Bayes approach. Scientific Reports 7, 41262

  25. Cheung CYY, Tang CS, Xu AM, Lee CH, Au KW, Xu L, Fong CHY, Kwok KHM, Chow WS , Woo YC, Yuen MMA, Hai JSH, Jin YL, Cheung BMY, Tan KCB, Cherny SS, Zhu F, Zhu T, Thomas GN, Cheng KK, Jiang CQ, Lam TH, Tse HF, Sham PC, Lam KSL (2017) Exome-chip association analysis reveals an Asian-specific missense variant in PAX4 associated with type 2 diabetes in Chinese individuals. Diabetologia 60, 107-115

  26. Hsu JS, Kwan JS, Pan ZC, Garcia-Barcelo MM, Sham PC, Li MX (2016) Inheritance-mode specific pathogenicity prediction (ISPP) for human protein coding genes, Bioinformatics 32, 3065-3071.

  27. Cheung CYY, Hui EYL, Lee CH, Kwok KHM, Gangwani RA, Li KKW, Chan JCW, Woo YC, Chow Chow WS, Yuen MMA, Wong RLC, Fong CHY, Xu AM, Wong DSH, Sham PC, Lam, KSL (2016) Impact of Genetic Loci Identified in Genome-Wide Association Studies on Diabetic Retinopathy in Chinese Patients With Type 2 Diabetes. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 57, 5518-5524

  28. Li Y, Samartzis D, Campbell DD, Cherny SS, Cheung KMC, Luk KDK, Karppinen J, Song YQ, Cheah KS, Chan D, Sham PC (2016) Two subtypes of intervertebral disc degeneration distinguished by large-scale population-based study. Spine Journal 16, 1079-1089.

  29. Mak TSH, Kwan JSH, Campbell DD, Sham PC (2016) Local true discovery rate weighted polygenic scores using GWAS summary data. Behavior Genetics 46, 573-582.

  30. Chiu YT, Wong JKL, Choi SW, Sze KMF, Ho DWH, Chan LK, Lee JMF, Man K, Cherny SS, Yang WL, Wong, CM, Sham PC, Ng IOL (2016)  Novel pre-mRNA splicing of intronically integrated HBV generates oncogenic chimera in hepatocellular carcinoma. Journal of Hepatology 64, 1256-1254.

  31. Kwan JSHm Li MX, Deng JE, Sham PC (2016) FAPI: Fast and accurate p-value imputation for genome-wide association study. European Journal of Human Genetics 24, 761-766.

  32. Nelson MR, Tipney H, Painter JL, Shen JD, Nicoletti P, Shen YF, Floratos A, Sham PC, Li MJ, Wang JW, Cardon LR, Whittaker JC, and Sanseau P (2015) The support of human genetic evidence for approved drug indications. Nature Genetics 47, 856-+.

  33. Ying DG, Sham PC, Smith DK, Zhang L, Lau YL, Yang WL (2015) HaploShare: identification of extended haplotypes shared by cases and evaluation against controls. Genome Biology 16.

  34. Zhou KX, Donnelly L, Yang J, Li MX, Deshmukh H, Van Zuydam N, Ahlqvist E, Spencer CC, Groop L, Morris AD, Colhoun HM, Sham PC, McCarthy MI, Palmer CNA, Pearson ER (2014) Heritability of variation in glycaemic response to metformin: a genome-wide complex trait analysis. Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology 2, 481-487.

  35. Tang CS, Zhang H, Cheung CYY, Xu M, Ho JCY, Zhou W, Cherny SS, Zhang Y, Holmen O, Au KW, Yu H, Xu L, Jia J, Porsch RM, Sun LJ, Xu WX, Zheng HP, Wong LY, Mu YM, Dou JT, Fong CHY, Wang SY, Hong XY, Dong LG, Liao YH, Wang JS, Lam LSM, Su X, Yan H, Yang ML, Chen J, Siu CW, Xie GQ, Woo YC, Wu YF, Tan KCB, Hveem K, Cheung BMY, Zollner S, Xu A, Chen E, Jiang CQ, Zhang YY, Lam TH, Ganesh SK, Huo Y, Sham PC, Lam KSL, Willer CJ, Tse HF, Gao W (2014), Exome-wide association analysis reveals novel coding sequence variants associated with lipid traits in Chinese. Nature Communications 6, 10206

  36. Wong EHM, So HC, Li MX, Wang Q, Butler AW, Paul B, Wu HM, Hui TCK, Choi SC, So MT, Garcia-Barcelo MM, McAlonan GM, Chen EYH, Cheung EFC, Chan RCK, Purcell SM, Cherny SS, Chen RRL, Li T, Sham PC (2014) Common Variants on Xq28 Conferring Risk of Schizophrenia in Han Chinese. Schizophrenia Bulletin 40, 777-786.

  37. Ripke S, Neale BM, Corvin A, Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (2014) Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci. Nature 511, 421-+.

  38. Tang JYM, Chang WC, Hui CLM, Wong GHY, Chan SKW, Lee EHM, Yeung WS, Wong CK, Tang WN, Chan WF, Pang EPF, Tso S, Ng RMK, Hung SF, Dunn ELW, Sham PC, Chen EYH (2014) Prospective relationship between duration of untreated psychosis and 13-year clinical outcome: A first-episode psychosis study. Schizophrenia Research 153, 1-8.

  39. Iyegbe C, Campbell D, Butler A, Ajnakina O, Sham P (2014) The emerging molecular architecture of schizophrenia, polygenic risk scores and the clinical implications for GxE research. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 49, 169-182.

  40. Cheung CYY, Hui EYL, Cheung BMY, Woo YC, Xu AM, Fong CHY, Ong KL, Yeung CY, Janus ED, Tse HF, Sham PC, Lam KSL (2014) Adiponectin gene variants and the risk of coronary heart disease: a 16-year longitudinal study. European Journal of Endocrinology 171, 107-115.

  41. Proitsi P, Lupton MK, Velayudhan L, Newhouse S, Fogh I, Tsolaki M, Daniilidou M, Pritchard M, Kloszewska I, Soininen H, Mecocci P, Vellas B, Williams J, Stewart R, Sham P, Lovestone S, Powell JF (2014) Genetic Predisposition to Increased Blood Cholesterol and Triglyceride Lipid Levels and Risk of Alzheimer Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis. PLoS Medicine 11(9)..

  42. Basil P, Li Q, Dempster EL, Mill J, Sham PC, Wong CCY, McAlonan GM (2014), Prenatal maternal immune activation causes epigenetic differences in adolescent mouse brain. Translational Psychiatry, 4.

  43. Sham PC, Purcell SM (2014) Statistical power and significance testing in large-scale genetic studies. Nature Reviews Genetics 15, 335-346

  44. Wong EHM, Cui L, Ng CL, Tang CSM, Liu XL, So MT, Yip BHK, Cheng G, Zhang RZ, Tang WK, Yang WL, Lau YL, Baum L, Kwan P, Sun LD, Zuo XB, Ren YQ, Yin XY, Miao XP, Liu JJ, Lui VCH, Ngan ESW, Yuan ZW, Zhang SW, Xia JL, Wang HL, Sun XB, Wang RY, Chang T, Chan IHY, Chung PHY, Zhang XJ, Wong KKY, Cherny SS, Sham PC, Tam PKH, Garcia-Barcelo MM (2013) Genome-wide copy number variation study in anorectal malformations. Human Molecular Genetics 22, 621-631.

  45. Tse HF, Ho JCY, Choi SW, Lee YK, Butler AW, Ng KM, Siu CW, Simpson MA, Lai WH, Chan YC, Au KW, Zhang JQ, Lay KWJ, Esteban MA, Nicholls JM, Colman A, Sham PC (2013) Patient-specific induced-pluripotent stem cells-derived cardiomyocytes recapitulate the pathogenic phenotypes of dilated cardiomyopathy due to a novel DES mutation identified by whole exome sequencing. Human Molecular Genetics 22, 1395-1403.

  46. Li MX, Gui HS, Kwan JSH, Bao SY, Sham PC (2012) A comprehensive framework for prioritizing variants in exome sequencing studies of Mendelian diseases. Nucleic Acids Research 40(7), e53

  47. Li MX, Yeung JMY, Cherny SS, and Sham PC (2012) Evaluating the effective numbers of independent tests and significant p-value thresholds in commercial genotyping arrays and public imputation reference datasets. Human Genetics 131, 747-756.

  48. Cheung CL, Lau KS, Ho AYY, Lee KK, Tiu SC, Lau EYF, Leung J, Tsang MW, Chan K-W, Yeung CY, Woo YC, Cheung EYN, Hung VHF, Pang HK, Hung C-S, Sham PC, Kung AWC (2012) Genome-wide association study identifies a susceptibility locus for thyrotoxic periodic paralysis at 17q24.3. Nature Genetics, 44:1026-+.

  49. Li MX, Gui HS, Kwan JSH, Sham PC (2011) GATES: A Rapid and Powerful Gene-Based Association Test Using Extended Simes Procedure. American Journal of Human Genetics 88, 283-293.

  50. So HC, Gui AHS, Cherny SS, Sham PC (2011) Evaluating the Heritability Explained by Known Susceptibility Variants: A Survey of Ten Complex Diseases. Genetic Epidemiology 35, 310-317.

  51. So HC, Kwan JSH, Cherny SS, Sham PC (2011) Risk Prediction of Complex Diseases from Family History and Known Susceptibility Loci, with Applications for Cancer Screening. American Journal of Human Genetics, 88, 548-565.

  52. So HC, Li MX, Sham PC (2011) Uncovering the Total Heritability Explained by All True Susceptibility Variants in a Genome-Wide Association Study. Genetic Epidemiology 35, 447-456.

  53. So HC, Sham PC (2010) A Unifying Framework for Evaluating the Predictive Power of Genetic Variants Based on the Level of Heritability Explained. PLoS Genetics 6

  54. Kung AWC, Xiao SM, Cherny S, Li GHY, Gao Y, Tso G, Lau KS, Luk KDK, Liu JM, Cui B, Zhang MJ, Zhang ZL, He JW, Yue H, Xia WB, Luo LM, He SL, Kiel DP, Karasik D, Hsu YH, Cupples LA, Demissie S, Styrkarsdottir U, Halldorsson BV, Sigurdsson G, Thorsteinsdottir U, Stefansson K, Richards JB, Zhai GJ, Soranzo N, Valdes A, Spector TD, Sham PC. Association of JAG1 with Bone Mineral Density and Osteoporotic Fractures: A Genome-wide Association Study and Follow-up Replication Studies. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2010;86(2):229-39

  55. Garcia-Barcelo MM, Tang CSM, Ngan ESW, Lui VCH, Chen Y, So MT, Leon TYY, Miao XP, Shum CKY, Liu FQ, Yeung MY, Yuan ZW, Guo WH, Liu L, Sun XB, Huang LM, Tou JF, Song YQ, Chan D, Cheung KMC, Wong KKY, Cherny SS, Sham PC, Tam PKH (2009) Genome-wide association study identifies NRG1 as a susceptibility locus for Hirschsprung's disease. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A.106, 2694-99.

  56. Purcell S, Neale B, Todd-Brown K, Thomas L, Ferreira MAR, Bender D, Maller J, Sklar P, de Bakker PIW, Daly MJ, Sham PC (2007) PLINK: A tool set for whole-genome association and population-based linkage analyses. American Journal of Human Genetics 81, 559-575

  57. Hye A, Lynham S, Thambisetty M, Causevic M, Campbell J, Byers HL, Hooper C, Rijsdijk F, Tabrizi SJ, Banner S, Shaw CE, Foy C, Poppe M, Archer N, Hamilton G, Powell J, Brown RG, Sham P, Ward M, Lovestone S (2006) Proteome-based plasma biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. Brain 129:3042-3050

  58. Rijsdijk FV, Van Haren NEM, Picchioni MM, McDonald C, Toulopoulou T, Pol HEH, Kahn RS, Murray R, Sham PC (2005) Brain MRI abnormalities in schizophrenia: same genes or same environment? Psychological Medicine 35 (10): 1399-1409

  59. Lam DH, Hayward P, Watkins ER, Wright K, Sham P (2005) Relapse prevention in patients with bipolar disorder: Cognitive therapy outcome after 2 years. American Journal of Psychiatry 162 (2): 324-329

  60. St Clair D, Xu MQ, Wang P, Yu YQ, Fang YR, Zhang F, Zheng XY, Gu NF, Feng GY, Sham P, He L (2005) Rates of adult schizophrenia following prenatal exposure to the Chinese famine of 1959-1961. Journal of the American Medical Association 294, 557-562

  61. Nash MW, Huezo-Diaz P, Sterne A, Purcell S, Hoda F, Cherny SS, Abecasis GR, Prince M, Gray JA, Ball D, Asherson P, Mann A, Goldberg D, McGuffin P, Farmer A, Plomin R, Craig IW, Sham PC (2004) Genome-wide linkage analysis of a composite index of neuroticism and mood-related scales in extreme selected sibships. Human Molecular Genetics 13 (19): 2173-2182

  62. Purcell S, Sham P (2004) Properties of structured association approaches to detecting population stratification. Human Heredity 58 (2): 93-107

  63. Neale BM, Sham PC (2004) The future of association studies: Gene-based analysis and replication. American Journal of Human Genetics 75, 353-362

  64. Purcell S, Cherny SS, Sham, PC (2003) Genetic Power Calculator: design of linkage and association genetic mapping studies of complex traits. Bioinformatics 19, 149-150

  65. Lam DH, Watkins ER, Hayward P, Bright J, Wright K, Kerr N, Parr-Davis G, Sham P (2003) A randomised controlled study of coginitive therapy for relapse prevention for bipolar affective disorder: outcome of the first year Archives of General Psychiatry 60,145-152

  66. McGuffin P, Rijsdijk F, Martin A, Sham P, Katz R, Cardno A (2003) The heritability of bipolar affective disorder and genetic relationship to unipolar depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 60: 497-502

  67. Sham PC, Purcell S, Cherny SS, Abecasis GR (2002) Powerful regression-based quantitative-trait linkage analysis of general pedigrees. American Journal of Human Genetics, 71, 238-253

  68. Sham P, Bader JS, Craig I, O’Donovan M, Owen M (2002) DNA pooling: a tool for large-scale association studies. Nature Reviews Genetics, 3, 862-871

  69. Zhao JH, Lissarrgue S, Essioux L, Sham PC (2002) GENECOUNTING: haplotype analysis with missing genotypes Bioinformatics 18 (12): 1694-1695

  70. Sham PC, Cherny S, Purcell S Hewitt JK (2000) Power of linkage versus association analysis of quantitative traits, by use of variance-components models, for sibship data. American Journal of Human Genetics 66, 1616-1630

  71. Fulker DW, Cherny SS, Sham PC, Hewitt JK (1999) Combined Linkage and   Association Sib-Pair Analysis for Quantitative Traits. American Journal of  Human Genetics, 64:  259-267.

  72. Bullmore E, Brammer M, Williams SCR, Rabe-Hesketh S, Janot N, David A, Mellors J, Howard R, Sham PC (1996) Statistical methods of estimation and inference for functional MR image analysis. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 35: 261-277.

  73. Sham PC, Curtis D (1995) An extended transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) for multi-allele marker loci.  Annals of Human Genetics, 59: 323-336.

  74. Curtis D, Sham PC (1995) A note on the application of the transmission disequilibrium test when a parent is missing. American Journal of Human Genetics, 56:  811-812.

  75. Sham PC, Curtis D (1995) Monte Carlo tests for associations between disease and alleles at highly polymorphic loci. Annals of Human Genetics, 59: 97-105.

  76. Takei N, Sham PC, O'Callaghan E, Murray RM (1992) Cities, winter birth and schizophrenia. Lancet, 340: 558-559.

  77. Sham PC, O'Callaghan E, Takei N, Murray G, Hare E, Murray RM (1992) Schizophrenia following prenatal exposure to influenza epidemics between 1939 and 1960. British Journal of Psychiatry, 160: 461-466.

  78. O'Callaghan E, Sham PC, Takei N, Glover G, Murray RM (1991) Schizophrenia after the exposure to 1957 A2 influenza epidemic. Lancet, 337: 1248-1250.

  1. Bishop T, Sham PC (2000) Analysis of Multifactorial Disease. Bios, London

  2. Sham PC (1998) Statistics in Human Genetics. Arnold Applications of Statistics Series., Edward Arnold, London.

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